How to identify parameters that has been modified since instance started?

To identify the parameter one can query v$parameter view to find the parameters that were modified. The column ISMODIFIED is FALSE by default when the instance starts up, when the value is changed it is SYSTEM_MOD indicating the value is changed at the SYSTEM level and if it’s MODIFIED then it’s changed at session level.

-- Before parameter change displaying value of ISMODIFIED
SQL> select name, value, ismodified from v$parameter where name = 'open_cursors';

NAME                 VALUE ISMODIFIED
-------------------- ----- ----------
open_cursors         301   FALSE

SQL> alter system set open_cursors=300;

System altered.

SQL> select name, value, ismodified from v$parameter where name = 'open_cursors';

NAME                 VALUE ISMODIFIED
-------------------- ----- ----------
open_cursors         300   SYSTEM_MOD

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