DBCC CHECKDB requires some amount of temporary space, to find the amount of space required in advance using ESTIMATEONLY option it will estimate amount of space required.
SET NOCOUNT ON
DBCC CHECKDB (‘AdventureWorks’) WITH ESTIMATEONLY
Estimated TEMPDB space needed for CHECKALLOC (KB)
Estimated TEMPDB space needed for CHECKTABLES (KB)
DBCC execution completed. If DBCC printed error messages, contact your system administrator.